**Analyze iPhone Motion And Orientation By Combining Gyrometer,**

**Acceleromerter, and Magnetometer Sensors**

**ABSTRACT**

Gyroscope
or Gyrometer sensors provide rotation data that must be used to
extract accurate motion and orientation from the data provided by
accelerometer sensors. By incorporating gyrometer (rotation) with
accelerometer data we
can accurately calculate acceleration and orientation, then subtract
the acceleration of gravity, and the remaining acceleration can be
integrated once to obtain speeds along the x, y ,z axises, and
integrate again to obtain displacements. The spreadsheet provided
here may be helpful / useful to some, who may not need to figure out
how to combine gyrometer with accelerometer data, but would get a
relatively simple view of how it is done. Then use gyrometer,
accelerometer, and magnetometer sensor data with this spreadsheet to
obtain relatively accurate useful results for fun projects.

Download this article (pdf): Click Here.

**INTRODUCTION**

The
following will explain a spreadsheet that has been created with the
incorporation of gyroscope
data to extract relatively accurate motion and orientation for a
device that contains gyrometers, accelerometers,
and magnetometers,
like the iPhone. It is well known that accelerometers by themselves
cannot be utilized to accurately characterize motion and orientation
of a device containing them. Analyzing data from accelerometers only
cannot properly distinguish effects from rotation changes. Meaning,
that accelerometers by themselves can give “apparent” orientation
changes (rotations) in pitch and roll. And rotations (changes) in
pitch and roll can appear as “apparent” accelerations. This can
be seen in fig
6 of a previous publication. That being said, this publication is
a follow up with a more encompassing analyses for “Calculating
Everything From iPhone Sensors”. The previous publication mentioned
above was done when iPhone's did not have gyroscopes. Today
gyroscopes, accelerometers and magnetometers are common in so called
smart phones. Hence this new spreadsheet supersedes the one in the
previous publication.

Smart
phones with the above sensors can be easily utilized in simple
physics experiments, like attach an iPhone (using a cover) with
velcro on a radio controlled toy, … all up to the imagination.

To
utilize the data from the sensors one must have the ability to
extract the data from the sensors. There are lots of “apps” in
the “App Store” of Apple's
iTune that can provide the data from these sensors. The app must
provide a downloadable file with the sensor outputs in a format
easily imported to a spreadsheet, such as CVS formatted. You will
also need some or develop some proficiency with utilizing a
spreadsheet. The spreadsheet that is provided here has been automated
so that after entering the sensors data, the calculations are
automatically performed. The explanations provided here are performed
within the context of utilizing the spreadsheet that is provided. The
spreadsheet is that of the free OpenOffice suit. Since the OpenOffice
Calc (ClickHere) can also save in the Excel format (ClickHere) of years gone by, it will also be provided. However, I
cannot vouch that the created Excel formatted version will perform
correctly; however, it is suppose to be “very compatible”. If you
don’t find the charts that are in the spreadsheets useful,
change/delete them and make your own. Make a copy of the spreadsheet
and keep the original as the master file, make changes as needed on
the copy. Furthermore, even though a cell may look empty, it may
contain a function, so check before you delete cells (row and
columns). Click on a blank cell to see if it is empty or not. In the
worksheets usually starting with row 4, we have used a function that
starts as follows

=IF(ISBLANK(Data.A4);""; for Analysis 1, and

=IF(A4>=(COUNT(Data.A$3:Data.A$65556));""; for Analysis 2.

Notice
this is the part of the functions in the cells that set cells to a
blank after the last data row, up to row 3000.

Two coordinates systems
are utilize for understanding the motion and attitude of a device
that contains gyrometers, accelerometers, and magnetometers. We have
the “body frame” with it's fixed x, y, z axis defined for an
iPhone as follows:

Figure 1

Note
the +Z-axis is pointing away from the front and is always
perpendicular to the face of the iPhone. The X-axis is along the
short length, and the Y-axis along the long length. The +Y-axis is
toward the “on” button on the top right of the iPhone. The
orientation of the axes follows the Right-Hand
Rule.
As these axes are fixed to the mobile devices Body, rotating the
device will rotate the axes to maintain their configuration as per
figure 1.

We
define the “Earth Frame”, that of the grounded observer as
follows: A unit vector along the x-axis in the horizontal plane and
pointing East; then a unit vector along the y-axis also in the
horizontal plane and pointing in the direction of magnetic North;
then following the Right-Hand
Rule
the unit vector along the z-axis is perpendicular to the horizontal
plane and pointing up. Motion and attitude are calculated from this
fixed reference frame or initial x, y, z Earth Frame position.
Gyrometers, accelerometers, and magnetometers make measurements with
respect to the “Body Frame” on which they are attached, so they
move and rotate with the device body. We then convert the
measurements made in the “Body Frame” to values that would be
observed in the “Earth Frame”.

**SOME MATHEMATICS**

With
understanding of kinematics,
the transformation of a vector measured in the Body Frame of
reference, to it's representation in the Earth Frame of reference is
defined by a 3 x 3 rotation
matrix will call R. Where each row is a unit vector
representation of the Earth Frame x, y, z axes respectively, as
measured in the Body Frame of reference. Hence:

And
for the transformation of a vector from the Earth Frame of reference
back to the Body Frame one must use the inverse rotation matrix of R.
Which is created by applying the transpose of R.

where

*v*_{EF}*(t)*is the velocity vector in the Earth Frame.
Applying
the convention defined above for the Earth Frame axises, R at an
initial time

*t*_{0}can be written as
where
we use the unit vectors components of the Earth Frame x, y, z axises,

*E*for East,*N*for North, and*U*for up, each is measured in the Body Frame. The quantities for equation 2 can be calculated from the accelerometers and magnetometers as vector products as follows:
where
the vectors G (gravity) and B (magnetic north) are measured in the
Body Frame by the accelerometers and magnetometers under initial
static conditions. Initial static conditions is defined at

*t*_{0}as the device (iPhone) is at rest, and the Earth's magnetic field is the only magnetic field present. No metals nor current carrying wires near the device as they will give an incorrect direction for magnetic north. However, the equations above will still work, but the calculated east and north will not be in the directions of true east and true magnetic north. But they will be the initial or starting conditions from which all subsequent calculations are performed.
The
accelerometers gives the values for the acceleration

*a*_{BF}*at a time**t*along the x, y, and z axes of the Body Frame. Then to calculate the acceleration*a*_{EF}as would be measured or observed in the Earth Frame, we must track the changes of the rotation matrix*R(t*) starting from the initial static condition*R(t*_{0}*)*. That is we need the values of*R(t+dt)*based on knowing the values at*R(t),*where*dt*is a very small time interval which equates to very small angle rotations. Without going thru all the math, we write for the small angle approximation
Where

is
the magnitude of the rotation vector

*ω*at time*t+dt*as measured by the gyrometers in the Body Frame, multiplied by*dt*.*I*and B are:
The
expression of equation 4, in brackets, is a matrix that transforms
the rotation matrix from

*R(t)*to values at*R(t+dt).*By substituting equations 2, 5, & 6 into equation 4, we can track the changing rotation matrix using the gyro data, starting from the initial static condition at time*t*_{0}to a time*t*_{0}*+dt*after a very small time interval*dt*. Then iterating for each subsequent time interval*dt*to update the previous rotation matrix values.
The
iteration process usingof equation 4 with equation 1 is relatively
easy to implement for calculations using a spreadsheet. We then can
subtract the acceleration of gravity, and the remaining acceleration
can be integrated (or numerically
integrated) once to obtain speeds along each of the Earth Frame
coordinate axises, and integrated again to obtain displacements also
along each the Earth Frame axises. Multiply the acceleration in units
of g's by
Standard Gravity for Desired Units: 9.80665 m/s

^{2}, or 32.174 ft/s^{2}.
The integrations in
equations 7 with iteration can be expressed with the following
algorithm for use with a spreadsheet.

8

Using numerically
integration the results can also be expressed as

for very small

*dt.*Either equations 8 or 9 are easy to implement with a spreadsheet.**THE SPREADSHEET**

The
first two rows of each worksheet has descriptions that hopefully are
sufficiently clear.

**A) Calibration**

At
least in early iPhone's it was common for the accelerometers to
require calibration. This could be observed by measuring the value of
the acceleration of gravity at various orientations, namely in the +
and – axis directions. By pointing the various axises in the down
direction, values of 1 or -1 should be obtained. For some iPhone they
could be more than 30% off. The procedure for calibrating the
accelerometers can be found elsewhere
and therefore will not be discussed here further. Note: the
worksheets for performing the calibrations are also contained in this
new spreadsheet and can be used as described in the calibration paper
referenced above. The spreadsheet is setup to automatically correct
the entered accelerometer values from the calibration procedure.

**B) Data**

The
spreadsheet contains a worksheet titled “Data”, the data from the
sensors is entered in this worksheet in columns A thru J. Note the
labels in row A2 thru J2, the correct data must be entered in the
appropriate column. In the worksheet (tabs) in the spreadsheet
equations have been propagated down for data to row number 3000 where
appropriate. If you use the same spreadsheet over and over, be mind
full that the if the next time you use less data in columns A thru J,
than before, then in the worksheet titled “Data”, you need to
delete the content of the excess previous data rows.

*.*__But delete the content not the formulas__
After
the data is entered in the appropriate columns auto calculations are
performed in the worksheets: “Data”, “Analysis 1”, and
“Analysis 2” down to 3000 rows (or data points).

**C) Analysis**

The
expression

in
equation 4 is calculated in the worksheet “Data”. The final
result for this expression is in columns “AL” thru “AT”.
Remember, equation 10, is for tracking how to change the rotation
matrix from

*R(t)*to*R(t+dt)*.
The
worksheet “Analysis 1” contains the calculations for correcting
the accelerometer values by the calibration procedure. Results are
presented in columns E thru G. Furthermore, this worksheet contains
the calculations for the representation of the Earth Frame x, y, z
axises in terms of unit vectors as are defined in the Body Frame. The
corrected accelerometer values and magnetometer values taken as
vectors are normalized, and results shown in columns J thru L and N
thru P, respectively. When taken under static conditions, the
negative of the normalized corrected accelerometer x, y, z values in
columns J thru L are defined as the Earth Frame Up z-axis unit
vector. Under static conditions, the accelerometers should always
read the down Gravity vector x, y, and z values. The Earth Frame
x-axis unit vector defined in the Body Frame as the East direction,
is presented in columns W thru Y. The Earth Frame y-axis unit vector
defined as the North direction, is in columns AF thru AH. These
results for “East”, “North”, and “Up” are obtain from
applying the vector cross products of equations 3 above.

The
data in the Analysis 1 worksheet starts in row 3, but the time here
does not start at the 1

^{st}time interval. That is because the app being used here for recording the sensors data usually does not read the magnetometer values until after about 1.7 sec. Hence data for times less than 1.7 sec has been ignored and not entered as data in the Data worksheet, cell A3. The “Analysis 1” worksheet also contains the accelerations and speeds along the Body Frame axises. The Body Frame accelerations and speeds have been transformed from the Earth Frame calculations using the inverse (also known as the transpose) rotation matrix. The acceleration results are in columns AJ thru AL; speeds results are in columns AO thru AQ. The displacements along the axises are also presented in columns AO thru AQ, and are calculated by integrating the speeds of columns AO thru AQ. For the accelerations, speeds and displacements charts, the time axis is that defined in column B of worksheet “Analysis 2”, $'Analysis 2'.$B$3:$B$3000.
The
worksheet “Analysis 2”, presents the results of transforming the
accelerometer values measured in the Body Frame to values that would
be observed in the Earth Frame, and the quantities of interest such
as pitch, roll, a yaw value, speeds and displacements as would be
measured by a stationary observer in the Earth Frame at the initial
static condition. Note, the results in the “Analysis 2” worksheet

__does not__contain all the data points (rows) in the “Analysis 1” worksheet. The results presented in the “Analysis 2” worksheets starts from whatever data point (row number) has been designated as the*. This initial starting condition is user set in*__initial starting static condition__*cell BH1 of the Analysis 1 worksheet*, and for this example, the initial starting condition is chosen at 6.23 sec, which correspond to data row 456. Then in worksheet Analysis 2, cells A3 and B3, start with data row 456 of the Analysis 1 worksheet, and time is set start as*t*_{0}*=*0 sec, respectively. The functions in these cells will not be explained, if you have a reasonable understanding of spreadsheet functions, you will be able to decipher the functions. The functions starting from row*are then propagated down to row 3000.*__number 4__
In
worksheet Analysis 2, The updating of the rotation matrix using
equation 10 (Analysis 1) starts in cells C3 thru E3, which contains
the East unit vector components of the Earth Frame, as calculated in
Analysis 1 at the chosen initial starting condition, of

*t*_{0}. Similarly, F3 thru H3, contains the North unit vector, and I3 thru K3, contains the Up unit vector. Then for this columns, starting with row 4, the iterations for updating the rotation matrix, starting from the initial unit vectors defining the Earth Frame axises are performed for tracking the Earth Frame axises after each time interval*dt*.
The
accelerometer values measured in the Body Frame are then transformed
to the values that would be observed in the Earth Frame using the
rotation matrix described above after each time interval. This are
calculated in columns M thru O. And in column P we subtract 1 from
the z component of the acceleration. In the Earth Frame, the Gravity
vector has only one nonzero component (0, 0, -1), that is down along
the z-axis, hence we subtract the z-axis component from -1. This
gives motion in the + z-axis as 'Up”.

Column
R contains the magnitude of the acceleration calculated as

**A' = SQRT [ A'**

_{EF}x^2 + A'_{EF}y^2 + ( A'_{EF}z - 1)^2 ]
To
proceed, we need to be able to distinguish when the device (iPhone)
is not moving. Note: that just because the acceleration can be 0, the
speed may not necessarily be 0. The speed maybe a constant value
other than 0. Furthermore, an instantaneous speed of 0 does not mean
the acceleration is 0. So we need to know when both accelerations and
speeds are 0, thus no motion. This should should become clear from
performing the integrations, small values, non-zero, are added up in
the integration process and distort results. Hence we need to set the
magnitude of the acceleration and the speeds along each axis to “0”
when the device is not moving. This can be performed by noting the
magnitude of the rotation vector shown in column “AY” of the
“Data” worksheet. This is plotted, note that for no-motion the
magnitude of the rotation vector is less than ~ 0.06. And as with any
sensor there is always some noise. Hence we use 0.06 as a coefficient
to kind of filter the magnitude of the acceleration and the speeds
along the Earth Frame axises. This coefficient can be set in cell AY2
in the Analysis 2 worksheet.

**You may need to adjust this value.**That is, we set the magnitude of the acceleration and the speeds along the Earth Frame axises to “0”, for times where the magnitude of the rotation vectors is less than 0.06. Results for the acceleration magnitude are in column S. For the speeds along the x, y, and z axises results are in columns AE thru AG. The part of the function in columns AE thru AG,
IF(INDIRECT("Data.AY"&A3)<S$2;0;

performs
the filtering. The author has found this approach useful, however,
you maybe clever, and find a different approach.

**Note**, you may have to adjust this coefficient. If speeds get very low ~3.5 Ft / Sec, you may have to lower this value of this coefficient. Or if you have a noisy initial condition, it may need to be increase. If the value of this coefficient is made to large, it will distort the calculated speeds and hence the displacements. Be mindful, start with a value of “0”, then increase to “0.01”, and study the resulting speeds. Increase till the appropriate results are obtained. The author has found that a value of “0.06” seems to work well for the few experiments that were performed. If you set this filter coefficient to “0”, you might need to use other techniques to remove background form the integration process. Often there will be a linear with time background, due to the initial static condition (no motion) that has a Pitch and or Roll value not equal 0 deg. That is why this author uses the filter coefficient.**D) Results**

The
results presented in this “Master” Spreadsheet is for an
experiment consisting of (while collecting the sensors data) raising
the iPhone from the surface of a mattress up to a height, then
dropping the iPhone on the mattress. Falling on the mattress it
bounced 3 or 4 times and came to rest with the Body Frame z-axis
pointing down. Note that the Body Frame +z-axis and the Earth Frame
+z-axis are co-linear, and point in the same direction. Furthermore,
for this experiment we are only interested in analyzing the up and
down motion, the z-axis motion.

The
iPhone accelerometers have limitations, they are set to saturate at +
and – 2 g's. Meaning they cannot accurately measure acceleration
values greater than +2 g's, or less than -2 g's. Dropping the iPhone
onto a mattress will exceed the +/- 2 g's limitations on impact (but
not before). Though the accelerometers will continue reading accurate
accelerations after a fraction of a sec from the impacts, the data
lost in that fraction of time is sufficient to make analysis of
speeds and displacements useless after the 1

^{st}impact. Since acceleration data is lost in the fraction of time during impact, the speeds cannot be tracked during the impact (integrated from the acceleration data); therefore, manually we may “**adjust**” the speeds and displacements to “0” after the 1^{st}bounce. Since we are only interested in the z-axis motion in this experiment, columns AT and AU are set to z-axis speed and displacement respectively. Then the “**adjustment”**is performed and shown in columns AT and AU (in the Analysis 2 worksheet) for the z-axis motion. The z-axis speeds and displacements are taken from columns AL and AQ respectively. The results are shown in the graphs (Figures 2 thru 4). The user may need to make adjustment to the appropriate speed results, or just ignore or delete the content in this columns. Some experiments may not need adjustments, hence the user can focus in the appropriate x, y, z axis motion or the magnitudes in columns AE thru AM (Analysis 2 worksheet) for the Earth Frame, and columns AO thru AW (Analysis 1 worksheet) for Body Frame motion.
Results
from a second experiment is shown in figure 5 below.

Figure
2. Accelerometer magnitude from x, y , z axis Body Frame readings.

Figure
3. Speed along the z-axis in the Earth Frame. The speed is adjusted
to “0” after 1

^{st}bounce.
Figure
4. z-axis displacement in the Earth Frame is performed by numerical
integration of the z-axis speed in the Earth Frame. The displacement
is adjusted “0” after the 1

^{st}bounce.
Figure
5. Different experiment: Toss up an iPhone with Body Frame z-axis
pointing up; then falls on a mattress. Bounces 3 or 4 times, and
mattress is below initial height. Distance (yellow) plotted on right
axis. Speeds and displacements are adjusted to “0” after 1

^{st}bounce. Note: Careful not exceed accelerometer saturation (+/- 2 g's) during toss up.**CONCLUSION**

Combining
gyrometer, accelerometer and magnetometer data, makes it possible to
conduct simple physic's experiments on motion and orientation using
an iPhone to collect the data, or a device with the above sensors,
and a spreadsheet for performing the analysis. A spreadsheet is
provided here containing all the calculations for performing the
analysis. The analysis consists of calculating accelerations, speeds,
distances (displacements), pitch and roll, and the orientation of the
Body Frame x, y, z axises from magnetic north. The analysis is
performed by effecting a transformation (with a rotation matrix) of
the accelerometer readings from the Body Frame to an Earth Frame of
reference. The inverse rotation matrix is then use to transform
results from the Earth Frame back to the Body Frame. The rotation
matrix is constructed with the gyrometer data to obtain accurate
rotations and accelerations values, that are free from “apparent”
artifacts that result from calculating rotations from accelerometer
data only. Have fun using the spreadsheet !!

Got absolutely no idea what you are doing but I am some impressed with all them formulas and such. Took me three times to finally pass Algebra I which is probably why I made a living digging ditches.

ReplyDeleteYour old high school buddy Bob Gomes

Hello,

ReplyDeleteI am trying to do some vibrational analysis on an object. This spreadsheet would be perfect, however once i enable editing in excel, the whole spreadsheet goes into whack. Any help on this? Thanks in advance.

Juan,

ReplyDeleteSorry to read that the Excel version seems to be problematic. I don’t have Excel, therefore, regretfully I can’t help / offer a fix. Consider using the “free” Apache OpenOffice open source suite. It is very good and is continually improved. Don’t know whether you are using Windows or OS X, I built the spreadsheet with the OS X (Mac) version of Apache OpenOffice, likely I used an older version than what is currently available from the Apache Foundation. They have version's for Windows, OS X, and many other operating systems.

If I think up anything useful, will let you know. !!

http://www.openoffice.org/download/

Juan, Happy New Year !!

ReplyDeleteHave sent you two files, were they able to help you ?

Happy New Year Rouel! Thank you for reaching out. I apologize, I didn't realize you responded on here! Unfortunately I didn't receive those files. If you could please sent them to juancarreon89@yahoo.com that'd be great!

ReplyDeleteThanks!

Hi Rouel,

ReplyDeleteThank you very much for sharing the knowledge and this great post.

Is it possible to analyze the errors of the IMU for example bias and scaling for accelerometer and gyroscope??

Please shed some light on this...that would be really helpful.

Thanks in advance!!

Hi Ravindran Ji,

DeleteRegretfully, not able to shed any light on the errors of the IMU. Have not study on it. As you know, you probably have to Google it, “errors of IMU”.

Good luck finding something useful in the internet.